Sunday, July 5, 2020

Online Social Media Success in the United States - 2475 Words

Online Social Media Success in the United States (Other (Not Listed) Sample) Content: ONLINE SOCIAL MEDIA SUCCESS IN THE US Student NameInstitutional Affiliation Online Social Media Success in the USIntroductionSince the conception of social media, masses of people have indulged in heated debates as to whether social media influences society positively or negatively (Bao, 2011). Social media platforms provide people with the opportunity to connect despite geographic, cultural, racial, and religious barriers. With the growing advantages, there has been the threat of cyber bullying which is an increasing source of concern for law enforcement and society. While there exists the negatives attributed of social media use, the positive aspects accruing from social media has created seamless communication channels that have strengthened interpersonal, business and societal relations while contributing to making the world a global village (Bao, 2011). History of Social MediaThe first form of social media was the use of email services invented in 1975. Since the times, social media has advanced to allow the development of profiles that integrate email us...

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Freud vs. Skinner - 2255 Words

Sigmund Freud versus Burrhus Frederic Skinner Comparsion and contrast of their theories In the world of psychology, Sigmund Freud versus B.F. Skinner has been a long-standing debate. The question, â€Å"If one had depression, which would be the better therapist and why?† raises a great variety of controversies. This debate of Freud versus Skinner stems from their position and philosophy in psychology, psychoanalysis and behaviorism—Freud being the founder of psychoanalysis and Skinner maintaining a strong behaviorist stand. There are typically three viewpoints to this controversy: those solely in support of Freud, those solely in support of Skinner, and those not in total support nor total†¦show more content†¦You can learn more about each of these three aspects of personality and how they interact in this overview of the id, ego, and superego. Skinner’s operant conditioning Operant conditioning (sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning) is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. Behaviorist B.F. Skinner, which is why you may occasionally hear it referred to as Skinnerian conditioning coined operant conditioning. As a behaviorist, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behavior. Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior. Skinner used the term operant to refer to any active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences. In other words, Skinners theory explained how we acquire the range of learned behaviors we exhibit each and every day. Examples of Operant Conditioning We can find examples of operant conditioning at work all around us. Consider the case of children completing homework to earn a reward from a parent or teacher, or employees finishing projects to receive praise or promotions. In these examples, the promise or possibility of rewards causes anShow MoreRelatedTheories Of Personality And Psychology1382 Words   |  6 PagesDebate on Psychoanalysis vs. Behaviorism: Freud and Skinner Moderator: Good evening, and welcome to the Northcentral University?s debate on psychanalysis versus behaviorism. My name is Nisaa Kirtman and I am from the Department of Psychology. It?s an honor to be the moderator of tonight?s debate. The topic for tonight?s debate are the contrasts between the foundations of psychoanalytic theory, developed by Sigmund Freud, and behavioristic theory, developed by B.F. Skinner. Specifically, based onRead MoreTheories Of Theories And Theories752 Words   |  4 PagesPsychodynamic model Initially, Sigmund Freud was the most influential thinker of his days and was known as the father of the Psychoanalytic theory. His theory was developed based on the belief that our behavior is impact by our thoughts and motivation outside of our consciousness. The experience from our childhood can greatly affect our behavior, meaning that our wants and needs can shape the way we behave regardless if we’re not conscious of them. Freud was able to test his theories, based on hisRead MoreEcological Systems Theory By Urie Bronfenbrenner1556 Words   |  7 Pagestraining with peers, and helping the child reach academic goals. Psychoanalytic Theory The Psychoanalytic Theory is associated with Erik Erikson and Sigmund Freud. The theories associated with psychoanalysis are discontinuous being that the child must go through stages to confront both biological and social conflicts in development. Freud introduced the first theory to be associated Psychoanalysis. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is characterized by the psychosexual stages and the three parts of personalityRead MoreThe Theory Of Language Development1606 Words   |  7 Pagesspeak. Behaviourist approach- B.F. Skinner believes that language is developed through operant conditioning and that children receive rewards for using language. Skinner believes children develop language through motivating operations, discriminative stimuli, response, and reinforcing stimuli. Skinner also believes that children learn through prompting, shaping and imitation of others. Personality Development is understood through the psychodynamic theory. Freud saw the psyche structured in 3 partsRead MoreThe Development of Psychological Disorders1013 Words   |  5 PagesAccording to Freud, development is sexual motivated and a child goes through five psychosexual stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital. Freud believed when the need for pleasure at any stage was overly satisfied or not satisfied at all, resulted in psychological disorders (Santrock, 2011, p. 23). According to Erickson, development happens throughout life. His developmental theory has eight stages. These are: trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiorityRead MoreFree will vs. Determinism1124 Words   |  5 PagesFree will vs. determinism is an argument as complex, intertwined, and co-dependent as nature vs. nurture or the age-old question of whether it was the chicken or the egg that came first. Philosophers have contemplated the question for ages, and arrived at no satisfactory answer. While considering which topic to address for this assignment, I posed the question of free will vs. determinism to a philosopher friend, whose response was â€Å"I don’t care.† He feels that the question is not worth askingRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of The Mind And Human Behavior Essay1816 Words   |  8 PagesSigmund Freud was born in Austrian in 1856 (Rana, 1997). He began his career in the field of psychology treating predominately Victorian era women for what was then called hysteria. This is where Freud began formulating his most famous theories based on his assertion that much of our behavior stems from unconscious motivations. This led Freud to pursue dream analysis as a way of extracting what machinations exist in this unconscious realm. In Freud’s analysis of the human mind and human behaviorRead MoreLifespan Development : Cognitive, And Personal And Social Development1717 Words   |  7 Pagesfactors which are; cultural factors, continuous vs di scontinuous change, critical periods vs sensitive periods, lifespan approach vs particular periods approach, nature vs nurture. The major theoretical perspectives in Lifespan Psychology is termed a broad, organized explanation and prediction concerning phenomena of interest. These theories could be either behavioral, cognitive, humanistic, contextual, evolutionary, psychodynamic. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY- Freud Perspective: Psychodynamic, it is called psychoanalyticRead MoreThe Concepts Of Nature Vs Nurture1273 Words   |  6 Pages The concepts of Nature vs Nurture, are major concepts in social science. Nature is the hereditary pattern of physical features in a human being s development. These features include, but are not limited to, our personality, usual and unusual appearances and the general measurements of how humans hold the attributes of being sociable, hostile behavior, their emotions, and the usage of alcohol and drugs. On the other hand Nurture is slightly different. Nurture is the influence of the environmentRead MorePsychology2912 Words   |  12 PagesPSYCOLOGY EXAM Differentiate between Freud and Eriksons approach to psychoanalytic theory in this lesson. You will examine and compare developmental stages side by side and have the opportunity to test your knowledge with a quiz at the end. Example for Comparison Mary has a 3-month-old daughter. Mary bottle feeds her child and follows a strict schedule for feeding times. The child is not allowed to have a pacifier. Mary is an affectionate parent, and all of her childs needs are met. How could

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Coding Using NVivo Is Useful to Researchers Essay - 854 Words

Coding Using NVivo Coding is an important step in qualitative research. One could describe it as the preparation of research data for analysis. Similarly, it could be thought of as the categorizing of data, the providing of structure and organization so that the researcher is able to make sense of the information. In other words, coding is the systematic process of â€Å"condensing extensive data sets into smaller analyzable units through the creation of categories and concepts derived from the data† (Lockyer, 2004). In addition, coding assists researchers in â€Å"getting a sense of the data; checking out the quality of the information†¦collected; [and] getting a sense of the whole† (Patton, 2002, p. 440). According to Creswell (2013), it is also†¦show more content†¦However, I had lost all data (apparently it was corrupted in the process) I had been working with and practicing on. When it was operating, the program was rather helpful. I was able to import and code the data easily as well as edit, delete, recode, reclassify, etc. Compared to coding by hand, the coding process was less cumbersome as it eliminated a lot of scrolling up and down to add, list, or view labels/categories. While I decided to code my data manually, mirroring the coding I had done during the hand-coding assignment, I experimented with the auto coding features. The outcomes were different from what I expected, but simultaneously illuminating by providing me with a different view of the data collected. In addition, I really appreciated the coding stripes when viewing the coded document as it provided a visual indicator of what codes had been used where. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages of using software to code data include data collection and storage, as the software permits a variety of information, data, and content types to be collected and stored together. It also allows the researcher to link information, nodes, or documents with one another for a more holistic analysis. Compared to coding by hand, software often provides a researcher with additional tools for coding and analysis (i.e. auto coding) that s/he would not otherwise have. It also permits theShow MoreRelatedOpen Coding, Axial Coding And Selective Coding1971 Words   |  8 Pages2.3: Open coding, axial coding, selective coding Glaser made reference to open coding and selective coding, while Strauss and Corbin in their re-formulation of grounded theory added ‘axiel coding’ (Dey, 1999). Open coding involves coding the data in every way possible, generating as many categories that might fit, open coding is the primary, or initial coding, while selective coding is a second level coding, selective coding involves delimiting coding to properties that closely relate to the coreRead MoreUsing Data Analysis For Mixed Methods2029 Words   |  9 Pages There are many general guidelines that can help researchers in mixed methods designs to conduct an effective data analysis. Data analysis strategy depends on the type of mixed methods design. Creswell (2007) suggested number of essential considerations should be in account when conducting mixed methods data analysis: 1. The analysis strategy should be used in order to answer the research question(s) being asked. The questions are different according to the research design as discussed earlier inRead MoreNeeds Assessment Plan For Action Case Study1031 Words   |  5 Pagespatients and the caregivers.FGD is preferred over the in depth interviews because firstly we are not dealing with any sensitive topics, secondly we can get a generalized opinion and full range and depth of information in single sessions which is very useful when there are financial and time constraints. 2(b) the target population is the patients and the caregivers. We would recruit the patients with the help from MRO (medical records office). Inclusion criteria for the patients are: recurrent admissionsRead MoreResearch On Physical Activity Promotion952 Words   |  4 Pagesat the state and local levels (Ogilvie et al., 2010; Sallis, Story, Lou, 2009). A process evaluation of the implementation of a state-level physical activity plan is proposed to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of policy implementation using a realist evaluation method. Analytic Framework The need for evidence related to policy influences regarding physical activity are increasing in importance as government, communities, and health professionals implement new community-wide interventionsRead MoreThe Problems Faced By Prisoners And Women Experience Hardships When Re Entering Society After Spending Time2005 Words   |  9 Pagesexperience hardships when re-entering society after spending time in incarceration. Released individuals face the issues of employment with a criminal record, education and family relations when trying to adjust back into society (Cobbina 2010). Researchers to this day focus on individual experiences in order to better understand the challenges ex-prisoners stumble upon when transitioning back into everyday life. This is important to study today because there are a high number of people in North AmericaRead MoreCritique of Article1931 Words   |  8 Pagesdementia an outdoor life†. Bennet (2001) is the framework that will be used to he lp structure the evaluation of this article, as it should then give an indication if the information is clearly justified or not. The study was carried out by four researchers: who have clearly stated their educational and professional back round in biographical notes Duggan et al (2008). The aim of the study was to determine if it is beneficial to sufferers of dementia to venture outdoors on a regular basis. AccordingRead MoreIs Cancer A Second Biggest Killer Of Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Australians?1750 Words   |  7 Pagesthe phone in regard to what they experienced, how they experienced it, and with whom they had this experience. The Aboriginal Patterns of Cancer Care (APOCC) study was a five year multi-method project including both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal researchers who conducted interviews between 2009 and 2010 with Aboriginal people with cancer, their carers, and health professionals who care for them (Newman et al., 2012, p. 437). Three interviewers of which two identified as Aboriginal, conducted sixteenRead MoreLeadership Structures That Support A Collaborative Culture Of Professional Learning Communities7618 Words   |  31 Pagesgive me a better understanding of how the licensed staff as a whole ranked the level of teacher efficacy at School Site A. Surveys when combined with other types of data can ?add great strength to a study because they are the primary way that researchers determine whether or not ideas held and behaviors engaged in by a few people studied intensively are more widespread in the general population? (LeCompte Schenusul, 1999, p. 72). This survey data was then used in cr afting focus group questionsRead MoreComparative Analysis of Business Analysis and Business Process Management Capabilities6455 Words   |  26 Pagesknowledge, there has not yet been any attempt to identify the commonality of skills required and points of uniqueness between the two professions. This study aims to address this gap and presents the findings of a detailed content mapping exercise (using NVivo as a qualitative data analysis tool) of the International Institution of Business Analysis (IIBA ®) Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge (BABOK ® Guide) against core BPM competency and capability frameworks. Keywords: Business analysisRead MoreCritical Analysis Of Evidence Based Practice3419 Words   |  14 Pagesbest available evidence to be used to improve practice and patient care, while improving decision-making (Holland and Rees, 2010). I will be critiquing two research papers; qualitative and quantitative, using a framework set out by Holland and Rees (2010), and will explore the impact on practice. Using a framework provides a standardised method of assessing quality and reduces subjectivity. What influences the impact of pressure ulcers on health-related quality of life? A qualitative patient-focused

None_Provided Essay Thesis Example For Students

None_Provided Essay Thesis Choices are part of everyday life. The choices that you make have a great effect on your outcome in life. Whether the decision is big or small, you should always be cautious and learn valuable lessons from each choice that you make. One must encounter choices that have to be made everyday. You may not even be aware of the choices that you make because of the unimportance of it to you at the time. The are decisions that you must make at work, school, home, and even the city that you live in play a big role in the person that you are. Take for instance driving. It may not be a broad topic, however there are several factors that contribute to the way you drive. Im sure that all of us have sped in the past with out even realizing the posted speed limit. This simple choice that you have made by exceeding the speed can cause major problems in the long run. Most all of us have been issued at speeding ticket Im sure from unconsciously speeding. However, that was a decision that was made on y our part to not concern yourself with the listed speed limit. Therefore your actions were punished. At another level there are many big choices that must be made. The agony and stress over it can be overwhelming. By looking at all the different choices that can be made and weighing out the pros and cons this task can easily be overcome. The lessons that you acquire throughout life by making choices play a tremendous part in how you will handle the next situation that you may incur. These lessons maybe good or bad ones but however, remain a very valuable part in ones life. The popular phase you learn from your mistakes is a fine way of saying that there are mistakes that are made but the next time you will be more knowledgeable and make a better decision. As we grow in age the more wise we will become from experience. Throughout my lifetime I have run into several obstacles that have been difficult. Some of these obstacles Ive had to make hard decisions that would eventually come to effect my whole life. Because of my choices I am where I am today. In high school I was never the model student. With less than a perfect attendance and no desire to achieve in school, my parent became, to say the least, a little concerned with my lack of interest in school. Time and time again I had been threatened with boarding school. Eventually school became the last thing on my mind. I had gotten to wrapped up with friends, boys, and anything else that didnt involve school. I noticed a big change in the way that I perceived things and the new attitude that I had towards everyone. BY then the threats had turned serious about boarding school. Of coarse I was less than thrilled about the idea of being taken away from my friends and family, but in time I realized that my future was a stake and humbly agreed that it was time to make a change. My decision to go to boarding school was the best thing I could have ever done for myself. Not only was I attending school and making good grades, I was preparing to live in the real world. I began to make goals for myself and did my very best to meet them. I made friends that were a positive influence on me. I was beginning to be proud of myself for the wise choices I made. I got a job and also attended a cosmetology school to prepare myself for the goals that I wanted to achieve. I was just beginning to take the first step into the real world. I owe all of this to that 1 choice I made to leave my hometown and make something of myself. .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec , .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec .postImageUrl , .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec , .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec:hover , .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec:visited , .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec:active { border:0!important; } .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec:active , .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ubf384d228373425dfdc6f643a8c401ec:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: 12 Angry Men - Juror 9 Essay This brings me to today. As of now I have graduated from high school with a high GPA. My diploma stands high so that everyone can see my great achievement. I am now attending college, something that I never thought id be able to say. Im still away from my friends and family but they know now that Im responsible enough to face the world on my own. Another example of hard choices that were made is illustrated in William Faulkners Barn Burning. A young boy must choose whether or not to be loyal to his father or tell the truth. The boy goes through a series of emotions and finally chooses the decision that he believes be just. Choices are an important part of life as I have proved to in the above passages. They should be taken seriously and never overlooked. Even the smallest of choices can effect you in the biggest way. So the next time you run across a problem think hard before you make that deciding choice.

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Refuge. Diary of the letters Review Essay Example

Refuge. Diary of the letters Review Paper Essay on Refuge. Diary of the letters What do you think the first few minutes, when I think about the war? On the burnt villages? About guerrillas shot? About concentration camps? Or, perhaps, about the hungry Leningrad? About Vasily Terkin? About Soviet films? About Victory Parade? About the most important battles Moscow, Stalingrad, Kursk, Berlin? But there is another side of the war a fierce struggle, victory and defeat, the daily battle and all this in my heart and mind of man whose life crossed the war. And when you meet with the witness just such a war comes to the realization that to understand the war is impossible, as it is impossible to say who suffered the most, you can not identify whose contributions weightier, can not count on that cost this lesson and make sure that people have learned advantage of it. All of Dostoevsky and remember his phrase about the childs tears. The child this is the person who is less than others has to do with the war this adult brutal game. Why then should they play the game? Play by the rules of the adults? Why should a child to starve Leningrad? Belarusian burn baby? Hiding in the basement or in a concentration camp wither little Jew? The name of Anne Frank the whole world knows. Jewish girl whose diary has become an example of how to look at the children of war. It does not prescribe brutal murders, it does not go into an analysis of what she is going through, do not groom their fears. Shes a child. Very simple words. Error. Scanty description. Not only inks, many everyday boredom (how scary when you realize that life in the cellar a LIFE for girl of twelve!) We will write a custom essay sample on Refuge. Diary of the letters Review specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Refuge. Diary of the letters Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Refuge. Diary of the letters Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer But this is -. It priceless childhood. Even if it takes place in the basement of the house often without a ray of light and without bread. No noisy games, no friends, and going to the movies with Mom and Dad. Without bathing in summer and snow in the winter battles. Her childhood a gray, dusty, stuffy, cramped and gloomy world. But it is beautiful. Because her her family. Because she was still alive, unlike many of his relatives, which, as she knows, the Germans killed. Because she is in love with her first, child, pure love! She wants to live! She dreams that her lies ahead, it builds on his life plans, she is waiting for the end of the war .. Then diary breaks off A minute perplexity and you can understand why there is no continuation. You understand that the world of Anna, the boundless world, the riches of which she dreamed of sitting in a cramped basement, died before he became incarnate in the reality. Anne Frank just a girl. What were thousands. But it so happened that her diary came to us. Further evidence of the war. Another reason to never repeat it is not.

Monday, March 16, 2020

u me nad the people essays

u me nad the people essays 1. The eyes whispers I love you dear, the lips move, no words appear, when your love is true, sincere and real, what the lips hide, the eyes reveal. 2. Im glad friendship doesnt come with price tags. For if it did, I would never afford someone great as you. Thanks for being my friend. 3. In life, try not to expect anything from anybody. This way, you wont be disappointed if they dont live up to your expectations. Accept any blessings with a smile. 4. The more friends you have, the more treasure you have. Thats why I want to make friends. Can I? 5. No special season, no special reason...just taking the time to say Im glad youre my friend! 6. The miracle of friendship speaks from one heart to another, listens for unspoken needs, recognizes secret dreams, understands silent things. 7. You can close your eyes on things you want to see, but you can never close your heart on things you dont want to hear. 8. Seems like the only time I see you near is when I close my eyes. Should I keep it t hat way? Because its the only way I can make you stay. 9. When we get hurt, it is one way that God is telling us that not all thats painful is bad or wrong. We get hurt so we would never hurt others the way we were hurt. 10 . A friend is the voice when you cant speak, the strength when youre weak, the hope when youre sad and the joy when youre gloomy. 11. Dance like nobodys watching. Sing like nobodys listening. Love like youll never get hurt. Live like its heaven on earth. 12. This much I know is true, that God blessed the broken road that lead me straight to you. 13. When I saw you, I was afraid to look at you. When I looked at you , I was afraid to touch you. When I touched you, I was afraid to kiss y...

Friday, February 28, 2020

International Political Economy Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

International Political Economy - Research Paper Example These included the entry of the Scandinavian monetary union and the Latin Monetary Union into the spectrum. In case a country was lacking in the membership of any of the international unions, trading operations were facilitated by common involvement in the gold systems by the international partners, regardless of their independence and colony status. Great Britain became top on the economic list of best performing countries. The country had developed massive economic, political, industrial influence, and was technically controlling more of the global market. According to Forbes (22), whereas capital controls similar to the Bretton Woods System had not yet been implemented, imbalances in capital flows were rarer than the post 1970 era. In light of its economic dominance, Britain's investment in other countries helped to control any imbalances across the world; the capital exports continued to grow when Britain's financial system hit a crisis, thus enabled other nations to recover reve nue lost from commodity exports. In light of this, this period witnessed mostly consistent economic growth and fairly infrequent economic crises. Unlike the Bretton Woods standards, the global financial order witnessed between 1870 and 1914 was not established at a common high level meeting; rather it underwent natural growth. In light of this, the Gilded Age that witnessed rapid economic development in North America squarely contributed to the stability of the monetary standard. After World War I The era between the two World Wars (1919-1939) witnessed a slump in the world economic status (White 411). Between 1919 and 1939, major economic players concentrated on their internal policies at the expense of global economy. Basically, both international business activities and capital flows reduced like never before. During the First World War nation-states had technically steered clear from the gold standard. Only the United States saw its significance, albeit temporarily, especially i n mid-1920s. Notably, within the first half of 1930s, the common standard was basically a disjointed system of using exchange rates. Forbes noted that in this period, major global economic powers such as Great Britain and the United States realized that the internationally accepted gold standard practically deviated from the widely acceptable national policy of retaining autonomy (23). To safeguard their gold reserves, nation-states, sometimes saw it wise to increase interest rates and adopt a general deflationary economic policy. This policy was aimed at averting a downturn, in cases where countries had reduced interest rates to trigger more investment and growth. Heston and Summers (97) argued that the need to reintroduce the gold standard in Britain may have been driven by the financial institutions to hurt the local working class. Great Britain emerged from the World War I financially weaker than the United States, allowing the latter to substitute her as the top-most financial giant in the world. America however was hesitant to take over her trading partner’s leadership role, because of isolationism and the need to concentrate on local issues. In contrast to Great Britain’s economic strength before the 1914, US capital exports were not counter cyclical. Fleming indicated that they grew faster in line with the America’s economic development until 1928, when the pangs of Great Depression began to bite (61). The intensification of the